Below are a number of key academic papers that explain the science behind our compounds in development. Some papers are freely available; others have to be purchased from the scientific journal in which they were published. We hope you find these references useful.


Mann K, Bladström A, Torup L, Gual A, van den Brink W. Extending the treatment options in alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled study of as-needed nalmefene. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 15;73(8):706-13. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.10.020. Epub 2012 Dec 11. To purchase this paper click here

Gual A, He Y, Torup L, van den Brink W, Mann K, ESENSE 2 Study Group. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, efficacy study of nalmefene, as-needed use, in patients with alcohol dependence. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Nov;23(11):1432-42. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.02.006. Epub 2013 Apr 3. To purchase this paper click here

van den Brink W, Aubin HJ, Bladström A, Torup L, Gual A, Mann K.
Efficacy of as-needed nalmefene in alcohol-dependent patients with at least a high drinking risk level: results from a subgroup analysis of two randomized controlled 6-month studies. Alcohol Alcohol. 2013 Sep-Oct;48(5):570-8. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agt061. Epub 2013 Jul 19. Available here

van den Brink W, Sørensen P, Torup L, Mann K, Gual A, for the SENSE Study Group. Long-term efficacy, tolerability and safety of nalmefene as-needed in patients with alcohol dependence: A 1-year, randomised controlled study. J Psychopharmacol. 2014 Mar 26;28(8):733-744. [Epub ahead of print] Available here

van den Brink W, Strang J, Gual A, Sørensen P, Jensen TJ, Mann K. Safety and tolerability of as-needed nalmefene in the treatment of alcohol dependence: results from the Phase III clinical programme. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2015 Apr;14(4):495-504. doi: 10.1517/14740338.2015.1011619. Epub 2015 Feb 4. To purchase this paper click here

Karhuvaara S, Simojoki K, Virta A, Rosberg M, Löyttyniemi E, Nurminen T, Kallio A, Mäkelä R. Targeted nalmefene with simple medical management in the treatment of heavy drinkers: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Jul;31(7):1179-87. Epub 2007 Apr 19. To purchase this paper click here

Soyka M. Nalmefene for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a current update. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Apr;17(4):675-84. doi: 10.1017/S1461145713001284. Epub 2013 Nov 18.
Available here


Hauser RA, Olanow CW, Kieburtz KD, et al. Tozadenant (SYN115) in patients with Parkinson’s disease who have motor fluctuations on levodopa: a phase 2b, double-blind, randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2014; published online July 7, 2014. Available here

Olanow, C.W., Hauser, R.A., Kieburtz, K., Neale, A., Resburg, C., Meya, U., Bandak, S. (2013) A Phase 2, placebo-controlled randomized, double-blind trial of tozadenant (SYN115) in patients with Parkinson's disease with wearing-off fluctuations on levodopa. Poster presented at the 65th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology, San Diego, March 20, 2013. Available here

Fuxe, K., Marcellino, D., Genedani, S., & Agnati, L. (2007). Adenosine A2A receptors, dopamine D2 receptors and their interactions in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 22(14), 1990-2017.
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Black, K. J., Jonathan, M., Campbell, M. C., Gusnard, D, A., & Bandak, S, l. (2010). Quantification of indirect pathway inhibition by the adenosing A2a antagonistic SYN115 in Parkinson disease. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30(48), 16284-16292.
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Upton, N., Chuang, T. T., Hunter, A, J., & Virley, D. J. (2008). 5-HT6 receptor antagonists as novel cognitive enhancing agents for Alzheimer’s disease. Neurotherapeutics, 5(3), 458-469.
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Weston CJ, Shepherd EL, Claridge LC, Rantakari P, Curbishley SM, Tomlinson JW, Hubscher SG, Reynolds GM, Aalto K, Anstee QM, Jalkanen S, Salmi M, Smith DJ, Day CP, Adams DH.
Vascular adhesion protein-1 promotes liver inflammation and drives hepatic fibrosis. J Clin Invest. 2015 Feb;125(2):501-20. doi: 10.1172/JCI73722. Epub 2014 Dec 22. Available here

Updated 24 March, 2015